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Ruby files can identify their own encodings or you can tell the interpreter how they are encoded. Doing so is explained shortly. The Ruby interpreter is actually quite flexible about the characters that appear in a Ruby program. Certain ASCII characters have specific meanings, and certain ASCII characters are not allowed in identifiers, but beyond that, a Ruby program may contain any characters allowed by the encoding. We explained earlier that identifiers may contain characters outside of the ASCII character set.

In fact, what this option really does is set the default external encoding of the process and then uses that encoding as the default source encoding. 8 but is not the preferred way to set the default external encoding. Two new options, -E and --encoding, allow 38 | Chapter 2: The Structure and Execution of Ruby Programs you to set both the default external and the default internal encoding and to specify an encoding by its full name rather than by a one-character abbreviation. For example: ruby ruby ruby ruby ruby ruby -E utf-8 -Eutf-8 -E utf-8:binary -E :sjis --encoding utf-8 --encoding=utf-8 # # # # # # Default external encoding name follows -E The space is optional Specify external and internal encodings Specify default internal encoding only --encoding is just like -E Or use an equals sign with --encoding The -U (for Unicode) option specifies a default internal encoding of UTF-8.

Freeze # This method defines a custom looping construct (an "iterator") for # Sudoku puzzles. For each cell whose value is unknown, this method # passes ("yields") the row number, column number, and box number to the # block associated with this iterator. = 0 # Move on if we know the cell's value box = BoxOfIndex[index] # Figure out the box for this cell yield row, col, box # Invoke the associated block end end end # Returns true if any row, column, or box has duplicates. # Otherwise returns false.

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A comparison of the programming languages C and Pascal by Feuer A.R.

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