By Elizabeth Endicott
An illustrated historical past of the pastoral nomadic lifestyle in Mongolia, this ebook examines the various demanding situations that Mongolian herders proceed to stand within the fight over traditional assets within the post-socialist loose industry period.
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Additional resources for A History of Land Use in Mongolia: The Thirteenth Century to the Present
17 In contrast to the traditional Chinese bureaucratic impulse toward centralization, the Mongolian institution of touxia fragmented landholdings and control over touxia populations: imperial princes, military figures and others deemed worthy of rich rewards were often presented with touxia lands and population in recognition of their status or deeds. Conceptually, the touxia might be seen as “shares” of the conquered lands of North China. The touxia grantees not only could appoint their own officials, but they also could—to varying degrees in the course of the Yuan Dynasty—retain tax revenues for their private use instead of forwarding such revenues to the state treasury.
The allure of a religion steeped in a rich written tradition can be understood in part by Altan Khan’s desire to cultivate his image as a legitimate ruler among his own subjects. Because he was a descendant of Chinggis Khan in the twenty-fifth generation, Altan Khan 52 A History of Land Use in Mongolia already had a firm basis for claiming the right to rule the Mongolian people. In addition, Tibetan Buddhism’s historical connection to the thirteenth-century court of the Yuan rulers made it a compelling component in any attempt to revitalize Mongolian unity and imperial ambitions.
28 In addition to natural pastureland haying, there is a history of sown fodder in Mongolia. In the socialist era, the negdels and state farms planted and cultivated hay crops. 29 Yet, even with the hurdles presented by climate, economic resources (or the lack thereof), and the uncertainties of pooling labor, haymaking is clearly viable in many parts of Mongolia. 30 But what about the Gobi? Simukov does not mention hay fodder in the Gobi in his era. In the socialist era, the Mongolian government subsidized the annual transport of hay and fodder to South Gobi Aimag in amounts ranging from 30,000 to 40,000 tons a year.
A History of Land Use in Mongolia: The Thirteenth Century to the Present by Elizabeth Endicott