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Extra info for Alternative Solvents for Green Chemistry: 2nd Edition
Hodgson and P. G. , 2009, 11, 53259. 18. V. Antonucci, J. Coleman, J. B. Ferry, N. Johnson, M. Mathe, J. P. Scott and J. Xu, Org. Proc. Res. , 2011, 15, 9392941. 19. C. Capello, U. Fischer and K. Hungerbuhler, Green. , 2007, 9, 9272934. 20. J. H. Clark and S. J. Tavener, Org. Proc. Res. , 2007, 11, 1492155. 21. R. Gani, C. Jimenez-Gonzalez and D. J. C. Constable, Comput. Chem. , 2005, 29, 166121676. 22. C. J. Cramer, in Chapter 11: Implicit Models for Condensed Phases in Essentials of Computational Chemistry: Theories and Models, 2nd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 2004.
9. The keto tautomer is more polar than the enol tautomer and therefore, the equilibrium lies to the left in polar media such as water. A classic example of solvent polarity effects on reaction rates can be seen by comparing SN1 and SN2 nucleophilic substitution reactions. g. haloalkane) proceeds to a charged transition state and this will be stabilized by a more polar solvent, which will lead to a lowering of the activation energy and a faster reaction in a more polar solvent. However, in an SN2 reaction the nucleophile is already charged and reacts with an uncharged substrate to give a transition state where the intermediate has a delocalised charge.
However, surely the most exciting results are still to come in the manufacture of new ‘benign-by-design’ chemical products and materials which are yet to be imagined. Beyond reaction chemistry, there is even more to be discovered in the realm of alternative solvents. g. in analytical chemistry) is at a younger stage, so even more avenues are open for new, greener discoveries. View Online 28 Chapter 1 . 1039/9781849736824-00001 References 1. P. T. Anastas and J. C. Warner, Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice, Oxford University Press, New York, 1998.
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