Download e-book for kindle: An Introduction to Orthodontics by Laura Mitchell

By Laura Mitchell

ISBN-10: 0192631845

ISBN-13: 9780192631848

This ebook presents a concise, yet accomplished, advent to scientific orthodontics. it's designed to attract either undergraduate dental scholars and the training dentist, and it truly is either easy-to-read and completely illustrated.

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Extra info for An Introduction to Orthodontics

Example text

Functional Neuroanatomy Midbrain. The midbrain is appropriately named because it forms the midsection of the brain, lying above the pons and below the cerebrum. It is also referred to as the mesencephalon. The midbrain contains several tracts that relay impulses to the cerebrum. Two other important midbrain structures are the red nucleus and the substantia nigra. Each of these consists of clusters of cell bodies of neurons involved in muscular control. Cerebellum The cerebellum, the second largest part of the brain, is located just below the posterior portion of the cerebrum and is partially covered by it.

A Trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus Trigeminal main sensory nucleus γ-Efferent fiber Spindle afferent fiber Muscle spindle α-Efferent fiber b 20 Trigeminal motor nucleus Jaw-closing muscle Fig 2-9 (a) The myotatic reflex or inverse stretch reflex is a somatic reflex that can be activated by a sudden application of downward force to the chin with a small rubber hammer. This results in contraction of the elevator muscles (masseter). This prevents further stretching and often causes an elevation of the mandible into occlusion.

This excites the inverse stretch reflex and eventually allows a return of the original functional length of the muscle. This phenomenon is also seen with the lateral pterygoid muscles in edentulous patients. When an individual with complete natural dentition fully intercuspates the teeth, the inferior lateral pterygoid muscles fully lengthen, which allows them to maintain their normal functional length. However, with dental prostheses, the resiliency of the interposed underlying soft tissues may not allow full contraction, and therefore muscle contracture can occur in the inferior lateral pterygoid muscles.

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An Introduction to Orthodontics by Laura Mitchell

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